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Our objective was to identify how postsecondary institutions contribute to or detract from poor leadership in society. The best way to determine this impact in a measurable form was by measuring the programs offered by institutions and the students partaking of those offerings.
Data Sources & Methods
Our original goal was a global assessment. However, we were unable to identify a comprehensive, global data source for this information. Therefore, we narrowed our focus to the United States. In the United States, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) maintains the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). IPEDS is “a comprehensive data set, updated annually by every college, university, and technical/vocational institution that participates in the federal student financial aid programs (Title IV-eligible institutions)”.
Although the data is sourced annually, it is not finalized for more than 12 months after each compilation. As a result, the most recent year data was available for this study was 2018.
As examined the initial data, we realized ranking performance by state required the accommodation for population sizes. Therefore, in addition to the NCIS IPEDS data, we needed the ability to account for the population size of each state. For this data, we used the U.S. Census Bureau 2000 census, 2010 census and associated annual forecast data.
NCES IPEDS data requires institutions to align their programs to one of 2,155 Classifications of Instructional Program (CIP) codes. In simple terms, these are standardized names of degree and certificate programs. Each institution decides which CIP best aligns to each of the programs offered and reported by that institution.
We first analyzed the list of CIP codes for those programs that were predominantly focused on people leadership. We concluded the relevant CIP codes for the years 2000 through 2010 include:
- 13.0401 Educational Leadership and Administration, General.
- 13.0410 Urban Education and Leadership.
- 28 MILITARY SCIENCE, LEADERSHIP AND OPERATIONAL ART.
- Note: We also include all extensions of CIP Code 28 which are specific to different branches of the military and used for programs like ROTC and Junior ROTC
Then, in 2010, NCES updated their list of CIP codes. All the CIP codes we included from 2000 remained. In addition, from 2010 forward, we included the following CIP codes:
- 13.0412 International School Administration/Leadership.
- 52.0213 Organizational Leadership.
- 60.0807 Corporate Pharmacy Leadership Residency/Fellowship Program.
- 60.0814 Health System Pharmacy Administration and Leadership Residency/Fellowship Program.
We then filtered all the postsecondary institutions that offered any of these programs (CIP codes). We counted how many of these programs each offered, as well as how many students participated in and graduated from each of these programs. In addition, we analyzed the participation by various heritages and each gender in these programs. To determine performance by state, we simply compiled all the data for all postsecondary institutions within each state.